主讲人：Martin CARRIER (Bielefeld University)
讲题：How does Good Science-Based Advice to Politics Look Like?
Not infrequently, scientific policy advice is criticized for being based on one-sided studies and biased analyses that are driven by economic interests and political missions. The prima-facie conclusion is that influences originating in the social arena and being imposed on science spoil the epistemic or knowledge-seeking character of science. Science of this kind does not look like a source of good advice. By contrast, I argue that freeing science from social or economic value commitments cannot always be implemented and is not always helpful. The point is not to expel value-judgments but rather to identify them and to keep them separate from facts. The risk of bias can be avoided by drawing up alternative scenarios which invoke a broad range of different socio-economic preferences. On the whole, giving scientific policy advice is inextricably interwoven with socio-economic commitments. Scientific policy advice should be explicit about the value judgments made and employ the fact-value distinction as a critical tool. Moreover, it should not subscribe to the creed that there is no alternative. Scientists should rather take the courage to conceive other courses of action and to broaden the range for social choice.
Martin CARRIER is professor of philosophy at Bielefeld University and director of the Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies of Science (I2SoS). He earned his Ph.D. at the University of Münster, spent his postdoctoral period at the University of Konstanz, and became professor of philosophy at the University of Heidelberg. Since 1998 Carrier works in Bielefeld. His chief area of research is the philosophy of science, in particular, historical changes in science and scientific method, theory-ladenness and empirical testability, and presently the relationship between science and values and science operating at the interface with society. In this latter field he addresses methodological changes imposed on science by the pressure of practice. Carrier is a member of the “German Academy of Science Leopoldina,” the “Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences,” the “Academy for Science and Literature Mainz,” the “Academia Europaea,” and the “European Academy of Sciences.” He was awarded the Leibniz Prize of the German Research Association (DFG) for 2008, the Blaise-Pascal-Medal for Social Sciences and Humanities for 2015 (conferred by the European Academy of Sciences), and the Canadian Diefenbaker Award for 2016.